首頁  >  凱風專區  >  凱風精粹
邪教,如影隨行(中英對照)

作者:Leonard Stern 石言 李芬(編譯) · 2008-05-23 來源:凱風網

  編者按:加拿大《渥太華公民報》5月17日發表署名文章《邪教,如影隨行》,對邪教的特點進行分析闡述,并再次把法輪功與西方公認邪教組織——科學教派相提并論,同時在文章末尾呼吁人們不要加入“任何一個試圖掩飾其真實意圖的運動”。文中關于宗教問題的若干論述只代表作者觀點,不代表本網立場。

 

  【加拿大《渥太華公民報》2008年5月17日,作者:Leonard Stern】一個被許多人認定為邪教的團體正欲滲透進一起社區活動中。當活動的組織者搞清楚他們是怎么回事后,便明確要求該邪教團體收攤子走人。不過,令組織者感到頗為苦惱的是,這個邪教團體為了蒙蔽不知情的讀者而刻意對自己進行了虛假的偽裝。

 
  不,這里講的可不是法輪功與加拿大郁金香節之間的爭論。這個事件發生在西雅圖弗里蒙特市場(Fremont Market)。美國記者丹·薩維奇(Dan Savage)說,在這個頗受歡迎的市場門口,購物的人們驚訝地發現了一個科學教派設立的攤位。一位市場發言人解釋說,科學教派是以普通“書商”的身份爭取到這個攤位的。
 
  可以肯定,這件事與法輪功在渥太華鬧騰得沸沸揚揚的事件如出一轍。中國政府認定法輪功為邪教,因此法輪功一直進行反對中國的抗議活動。在郁金香節的開幕式上,原計劃有一個法輪功所屬的行進樂隊進行表演,然而,在最后一分鐘時,活動組委會取消了這項表演?;顒咏M織者說,原來沒有人告知他們這個行進樂隊是屬于法輪功的。當他們發現真相后,擔心這個樂隊會使節日慶祝變成一項政治抗議活動,因此,做出了上述決定。
 
  相信一定有許多人贊同法輪功是個“怪異邪教”的觀點,所以在一些地方,法輪功鮮有同情者。正像排斥科學教派一樣,弗里蒙特市場也會很樂意把他們轟將出去。
 
  不過,我們還是應該小心使用“邪教”這個詞,因為沒有任何一個“宗教”覺著自己呆傻或稀奇古怪。在影片《波拉特》(Borat)中,薩沙·伯龍·科恩(Sacha Baron Cohen)進入一個五旬節教堂,用另一種語言取笑信徒?!恫ɡ亍返挠懊韵矚g嘲笑怪異的基督徒??贫飨壬彩莻€猶太人,在一個傳統的猶太教堂內,他用攝像機記錄了教徒們在祈禱時前仰后合、搖頭晃腦的樣子。從德克薩斯州的埃爾帕索(El Paso)到加拿大薩斯卡通的電影院中,你可以聽到許多人都在對此竊笑。
 
  盡管確實有伊斯蘭極端分子的威脅,但是不止一位記錄片制作人大著膽子展示了穆斯林祈禱時喜怒無常的影像,這些畫面本身就足以讓人有一種不詳的預兆。對非穆斯林信徒來說,看到成千上萬的麥加朝圣者個個前額嗑向地面的畫面,可能會覺著有些毛骨悚然和不解,甚至會覺著這些人中邪了。不過,你再把一位穆斯林教徒請去見識一下佛教儀式,看看到時誰說誰更像邪教分子。
 
  一般說來,邪教通常具有的標志性特征包括新招募成員要經歷人格的改變,并且與他們曾經成長的社區集體越來越疏遠。不過當某個人轉而信奉一個新的教派時,這種現象也經常會出現。在獄中那些開始信奉耶穌的罪犯,給人最突出的感覺就是其個性的改變,這種性格變化能夠使他們徹底遠離他們曾經成群結伙的團體(比如說街頭混混),但是以此認定這些人就是邪教而把他們排斥在基督徒外,似乎不太公平。
 
  邪教還被指責用恐懼和贖罪心理來控制信徒,我知道羅馬天主教往往熟諳此道。詹姆斯·喬伊斯的《青年藝術家畫像》一書中,一個守舊的愛爾蘭神父發表來自地獄的布道,這比你從湯姆·克魯斯或者其他科學教派神學家那兒所聽到的任何東西都要可怕。
 
  對純粹的期待,魅力型領袖的威臨,心無旁騖,以及“我們對付他們”的世界觀,所有這些定義邪教的框框對于許多有名望的宗教來說也同樣是主要的表現。正如一些學者們所爭論的那樣,甚至用“酗酒”、“無名氏”都可以對一個邪教組織去定義。
 
  然而,在已確定的宗教和所謂的邪教之間,有些特點相互交叉,其中最顯著的是,相比宗教,邪教使用欺騙手段更加普遍。我不相信法輪功一定是危險的或者是個邪教,但它的成員卻有不如實講述其身份的歷史。幾個月前,我在Westboro遇到一位正分發一場中國文化表演門票的男子,他堅持說“要帶著孩子來看?!钡斘遗c他交談五分鐘以后,某些事情漸漸凸顯,我問這個晚會是否就是法輪功的晚會?這時他的友善的表情銷聲匿跡了。
 
  西雅圖記者丹·薩維奇指出雖然科學教派并非為基督教,但他們越來越頻繁的使用一個十字架符號。挪用符號就是一種欺騙形式。
 
  彌賽亞基督教派將進入大學,向天真的猶太學生分發配以類似燭臺一樣標識的招募文書,努力引誘他們。這些學生還以為他們被邀請參加一個“猶太人”的活動。
 
  這件事本身可能無法確定一個組織就是邪教,但是我建議,對任何一個試圖掩飾其真實意圖的運動都不要加入。(譯者注:文中關于宗教問題的若干論述只代表作者觀點。)(完)
 
   原文網址: http://www.canada.com/ottawacitizenews/story.html?id=1aeeb770-14d7-4e76-8af5-7198c6a680a6

Cult followings

The Ottawa Citizen By: Leonard Stern

A group that many consider a religious cult infiltrates a community event. Event organizers figure out what's going on and tell the group to beat it. What most irked the organizers was that the alleged cult misrepresented itself in order to gain access to an unsuspecting audience.

No, this is not about the dispute between the Falun Gong and the Canadian Tulip Festival. It's about an incident at Seattle's Fremont Market. As the U.S. journalist Dan Savage tells it, shoppers at the popular outdoor market were surprised to discover a booth sponsored by the Church of Scientology. The Scientologists obtained the booth under the pretense of being ordinary 'booksellers', according to a market spokesman.

To be sure, there are echoes here of the Falun Gong dust-up in Ottawa. The Chinese government says Falun Gong is a cult, which is why Falun Gong hold anti-China protests. A Falun Gong marching band was set to perform at the opening ceremony of the Tulip Festival when, at the last minute, the festival cancelled the appearance. The tulip organizers said they weren't told the band was Falun Gong, and when they found out they feared the band would turn the festival into a political protest.

The festival has since apologized to the band. But if there wasn't a whole lot of sympathy for the Falun Gong in some quarters, it's because many people likely shared the view that it's a weird cult. Same with scientologists, to whom the Fremont Market was only too happy to give the boot.

We should be careful about the word cult, though. Any religion other than one's own looks bizarre and silly. In the movie Borat, Sacha Baron Cohen goes into a Pentecostal church and makes fun of worshippers for speaking in tongues. Borat fans loved laughing at the freaky Christians. Mr. Cohen, meanwhile, is Jewish. Take a video camera into an Orthodox synagogue and film the men rocking back and forth in their ecstatic prayer, and you'll get plenty of snickers in movie theatres from El Paso to Saskatoon.

The threat of militant Islam is real, but more than one documentary filmmaker has overreached by showing moody video of Muslims at prayer, as though such footage itself is sufficient to suggest foreboding. To non-Muslims, images from Mecca of thousands of men pressing their foreheads to the floor are creepy and foreign, perhaps even cultish. But invite a Muslim to witness a Buddhist ceremony and see who's calling whom a cult member.

A defining mark of cults, supposedly, is that new recruits experience a personality change and become alienated from the communities they grew up in. But this is often the case whenever someone converts to a new religion. Criminals who find Jesus in prison experience the most radical of personality change, which profoundly alienates them from the communities to which they once belonged (street gangs, say). Seems unfair to write off born again Christians as cult followers.

Cults are accused of using fear and guilt to secure obedience. That pretty much takes care of all the Roman Catholics I know. The sermon on hell in James Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, delivered by an old school Irish priest, is scarier than anything you'll hear from Tom Cruise or other Scientologist theologian.

Expectations of purity, the presence of charismatic leaders, a sense of exclusivity or chosenness, an "us vs. them" world view -- all these criteria assigned to cults are also central to many respectable religions. As some scholars have argued, even Alcoholics Anonymous can be made to fit definitions of a cult organization.

Yet for all the overlap between established religions and alleged cults, there is one trait that appears to be more common among the latter than the former: the use of deception. I don't believe Falun Gong is either dangerous or a cult, but its members do have a history of misrepresenting themselves. A few months ago I was approached in Westboro by a man giving away tickets to a Chinese cultural performance. Bring the kids, he insisted. After chatting for five minutes something clicked and I asked if the show was Falun Gong; it was, and his friendly manner vanished.

The Seattle journalist Dan Savage has noted that the Church of Scientology is increasingly using the cross as a symbol, even though the group is in no way Christian. Appropriating symbols is a form of deception.

Messianic Christian sects will go onto university campuses and distribute recruitment literature with symbols like the menorah, in an effort to lure naive Jewish students who think they have been invited to a "Jewish" event.

This may itself not make a group a cult, but any movement that feels it has to disguise its real agenda is not one that I'd recommend joining.

E-mail: lstern@thecitizen.canwest.com

(The Ottawa Citizen, Saturday, May 17, 2008)

分享到:
責任編輯:
偷拍亚洲综合20p